James Bishop is Professor of Marine Science at the University of California, Berkeley and Faculty Senior Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He received his B.Sc .from the University of British Columbia, and his Sc.D. from MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. He has logged 2 years at sea during 46 oceanographic expeditions researching the ocean’s biological carbon cycle. The processes of photosynthesis, grazing, particle sinking, and respiration collectively known as the “ocean biological carbon pump” move CO2 from surface waters into the deep sea and thereby operate to reduce levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The biotic carbon flows which change on a week to week basis are substantial, yet there are open questions regarding the stability of the pump in the face of human induced ocean warming and acidification. Ships can’t do this job. He now pioneers new autonomous robots needed to fill this knowledge gap. His autonomous Carbon Explorer (recognized by the R&D 100 award) and new Carbon Flux Explorer, each, costing the equivalent of one day of ship cost, can report real-time daily data during year-long missions and thus provide observations required for accurate ocean carbon simulations and policy decisions.